вівторок, 17 жовтня 2017 р.

The Roman Colosseum

It is difficult to find a person who in our time has not heard anything about him. This is one of the most grandiose buildings in the whole era of human existence, recognized by all the symbol of the Roman Empire. It's about the famous Amphitheater Colosseum in Italy (Rome).



Amphitheater of the Colosseum in Rome: history and interesting facts
The Colosseum in Rome was built in 80 AD under the Roman emperor Titus of the Flavian clan. The construction itself was called the Flavian amphitheater. The place for the construction was chosen the Golden House of Nero, more precisely its artificial lake, located in the city of Rome. The erection of the building took only 8 years.



The coliseum from Latin means colossal. It is not surprising that this name ousted the official version of the amphitheater among the people. And although the ancient Roman architects by this time it was already difficult to surprise the erection of huge amphitheatres, the Colosseum in Rome surpassed all its competitors in order and quickly became associated as a new wonder of the world.The size of the building is impressive. The oval-shaped arena occupies a platform of 86 by 54 meters, the entire building has a diameter of 156 and 188 meters, a wall height of 48 meters. 80 entrances and 50 thousand seats confirmed the colossal nature of the Flavian amphitheater.



The architect of the building was Quintus Aterius. For the construction of such a huge structure, slave labor was used. Erection went on day and night.
The building was erected on a 13-meter concrete foundation, which was executed in a drained lake. Reliability of the structure was ensured by a frame made up of 80 radial walls and 7 circular walls.

What is the Colosseum built from? During the construction of the Colosseum in Italy, a variety of materials were used: marble - seats, travertine - ring walls, concrete and tuff - radial walls, brick - arches. Separately, was made of marble.In its original form, the Colosseum amphitheater had 3 floors. At the first was the emperor's bed and marble places for the senate. On the second floor were installed marble benches, intended for citizens of Ancient Rome. On the third floor there were places for all other spectators, made in the form of wooden benches and simply standing places. In the II century the last fourth floor was completed.

The arena of the Roman Colosseum on bad days (heat or rain) could be closed by a tent stretched on the masts. It is worth noting the floor of the arena itself. It was made of wood, usually covered with a layer of sand, and was ... mobile. For carrying out sea battles the arena could be filled with water from a suitable aqueduct.



The main purpose of the Colosseum in Rome was to conduct gladiatorial fights. The arena of the amphitheater allowed to accommodate up to 3 thousand soldiers. In history, the celebration of the opening of the Colloseum stands out, which lasted as much as 100 days. In addition to the gladiatorial fights, hunting scenes were arranged here, with special decorations put out of the wooden floor. Another date in the history of the Flavian amphitheater is the celebration of the Millennium of Rome in 249. Thousands of gladiators and animals also died here. The end of the bloody massacres was laid only in 405.

With the fall of the great Roman Empire, the building of the Amphitheater of the Colosseum in Italy began to decline and began to collapse. In the Middle Ages the Colosseum is mentioned as a castle. In the Revival, local residents began to dismantle the amphitheater for the construction of local structures. Even later, homeless people found shelter here.The end of the overgrowth and destruction of the Amphitheater of the Colosseum was laid in the 18th century by Pope Benedict XIV. On his initiative, a cross was erected in memory of the spilled blood, and church activities began. And in our time on Good Friday there is the Way of the Cross, uniting thousands of Christian believers.

And although today the Colosseum in Rome is half destroyed, it still makes a huge impression and with dignity holds the title of the symbol of Rome.

понеділок, 16 жовтня 2017 р.

Are you a good writer_

In the event that you have ever thought about whether you would have made an incredible essayist, there are a couple of signs that you may have missed that would show something towards reality. Regardless of the possibility that you are just presuming it now, following a steady profession, a moment degree or beginning a family, it is never past the point where it is possible to begin composing.
(Picture source: BigStockPhoto)
There are a considerable measure of better than average distributed writers on the planet that did not begin composing until the point when they resign from their consistent lives. Notwithstanding your age, you may have an incredible novel in you.
J.K. Rowling was never distributed Harry Potter, and was turned around 12 surely understood distributers previously being grabbed by Bloomsbury, with just a 1,500 British Pounds progress. The main reason Bloomsbury's editorial manager, Barry Cunningham concurred was on the grounds that he gave the primary section to an executive's 8-year-old little girl Alice Newton to peruse and she requested more.
Read Also: Showcase Of Beautiful Book Authors Websites
I have met numerous authors that have the sort of ability it takes to top the New York Times Best Seller list easily yet huge numbers of them don't distribute their work. They compose for the sheer delight of composing and most simply post the work online for the world to appreciate. In any case, on the off chance that you at any point thought about whether you are an author on the most fundamental level, look at the accompanying:
12 Signs You Are A Writer At Heart
Sign #1: Dream Writer
Have you at any point fantasized about composing? Or, on the other hand have you recently fantasized more than you might suspect is typical? On the off chance that you tend to float off to dream arrive you might be an author. One of the characteristics of an extraordinary story teller is the capacity to fantasize strikingly. Numerous journalists can do this voluntarily and some can do it while staying aware of a discussion.
Sign #2: A Childhood Passion
Did you appreciate composing when you were youthful? On the off chance that you delighted in composing when you were a youngster, it could be an indication that you were intended to compose. Youngsters realize what they like and tend to recognize what they will do with their life regardless of the possibility that they can't express it.
Take the kid who is constantly worried about the prosperity of others turning into a specialist or nurture, or the youngster who wanted to sing being dynamic in the congregation choir all her life. There are various cases.
Sign #3: A Born Screenwriter
Do you have a skill for making sense of Movie Plots? Authors think uniquely in contrast to others. While people around you are getting shabby excites and are totally astonished by spine chiller motion pictures, the regular essayist is 10 scenes ahead in making sense of who the executioner is or how the riddle is comprehended.
Numerous authors were amazed that the general population in the venue around them viewing The Sixth Sense did not know Bruce Willis was dead until the very end. To us, it was evident around the halfway point in light of the fact that there was no other route for the story to play out. Everybody cherishes a decent story.
Read Also: 20 Things To Replenish Your Idea Vault (When You Run Out Of Ideas)
Sign #4: Reading Is (Forever) A Hobby
Do you completely love to peruse? Journalists read. It is only an unavoidable truth for us. This isn't to imply that that everybody who peruses can compose, yet the author is attracted to books like ants to an outing. In the event that you want to compose and were dependably an enthusiastic peruser, all around… that's all there is to it?
Sign #5: No Glory? Don't sweat it
Have you at any point considered living like a poor person, and still need to compose? Have you at any point considered the prospect that in the event that you conferred yourself to composing full time, you may live in destitution but then, regardless you need to compose? On the off chance that the written work is more speaking to you than living ineffectively is unappealing, you have the bug. Do you have the ability?
Sign #6: Can't Stop Writing
Do you have more than two or three note pads loaded with composing from cover to cover? At the point when journalists initially begin, they compose anyplace and all over the place. As kids, we compose on dividers, at that point in diaries, books and scratch pad. Afterward, we end up jotting thoughts on mixed drink napkins and the backs of envelopes when nothing else is convenient.
Any individual who has hopped out of bed after a fantasy and hysterically looked oblivious for a comment with, and on, will realize what I mean.
Sign #7: The Day Dreamer
Have you at any point gotten yourself somewhere out in dreamland? Have you at any point gotten yourself completely drenched in your own particular contemplations when you ought to concentrate on something different and those considerations are plots, ballads or verses?
On the off chance that you get a thought for a story latched onto your subconscious mind and continue backpedaling to it, even at untimely minutes, it resembles a drive in you that powers you to complete a thought. This is a better than average sign that you have an author under the surface.
Read Also: 20 Things To Replenish Your Idea Vault (When You Run Out Of Ideas)
Sign #8:"Tell Us A Story"
Do youngsters incline toward you disclose to them your very own account making as opposed to from a book? Children can recognize an author a mile away. The first occasion when you recount a story, you should hang a storyteller sign that no one but youngsters can read, around your neck.
Sign #9: What's That Word?
When you run over a word you don't perceive, Do You NEED To locate Its importance? Authors are scholars. We want to run over words we don't comprehend and as a general rule, we can understand the importance by basically understanding it in a sentence or detailing the purpose of the section.
All things considered, we need to know without a doubt. We had a few word references and a thesaurus or two lying around the house. Does this sound like you?
Sign #10: Board Games Are Fun!
Do you discover words more fun than a barrel brimming with prepackaged games? With regards to playing recreations, a great many people like cards, imposing business model, or other tabletop games that move rapidly or include next to no intellectual competence. For them, fun implies cycling down the psyche and working on autopilot.
Authors are attracted to crosswords, scrabble and Trivia. What sort of diversions do you appreciate?
Sign #11: Long-Term Part Time Job
Do you compose when you find the opportunity in spite of a wild way of life or a tiring profession? A characteristic conceived author can't help themselves. On the off chance that they are not composing, they are considering composing. In the event that they work 16 hours per day, they rest six, compose for one, and are driving forward and backward whatever remains of the time.
When you are not composing, do you end up wanting to be? Do you make the time? Assuming this is the case, you are more than likely an essayist on the most fundamental level.
Read Also: 23 Ways To Counter Writer's Block
Sign #12: It's 5 Already?
When you compose, and this is genuine imperative, do you forget about time? In the event that you have ever ended up sitting before your pledge processor at 3:30am when you intended to stop composing at midnight, you have skimmed the surface of the essayist's zone.
This is an otherworldly world that some way or another rates up normal time. You start to compose and the before you know it, you have eight thousand words and it is nearly day break. It is a superb and inventive place that you long to return to. On the off chance that this is you, please consider demonstrating your work to a distributer.
3 Signs you May Not be a Writer
And after that, there are individuals who think they are journalists, who are in the zone for a brief high, however are essentially not going to be in it for the long run. Is it true that you are in this side of the fence?
Sign #1: No To Criticism!
Do you take feedback well? On the off chance that you are turned around a distributer or told by somebody, in whose feeling you put no stock, that you can't compose well and it just moves off without the sting of being cut by a sharp blade, you may not be an essayist. On the off chance that there is one thing that all journalists have in like manner, it is that we are a touchy cluster of individuals who have sentiments that are effectively harmed with regards to our life's desire.
We don't turn out to be so effortlessly discouraged or frustrated, yet it harms like insane when somebody discloses to us we are bad at what we do paying little mind to it's identity. The purpose behind this profound affectability is the measure of heart an author puts into his or her work.
It is much the same as being told by somebody with whom you are profoundly, frantically, enthusiastically enamored with that they don't love you.
Sign #2: Bells And Whistles
Do you abhor a few sections of composing… like altering or sealing, revamping or examine? Any essayist that discloses to you they prefer not to alter or that examination is incensing is essentially revealing to you what he or she supposes you need to hear. The truth of the matter is that written work isn't simply putting down important words for us. We may whimper and groan with regards to a few sections of our calling however we would not have any desire to do whatever else.
We adore even the most noticeably bad piece of what we do. On the off chance that you truly despise altering or examining, you might be great with words, yet would you say you are truly infatuated with the calling?
Sign #3: Not A Bragging Right
Do you consider composing a sentimental calling, or something worth gloating about? Do you gloat about being an author or utilize it to awe the inverse sex? On the off chance that you write to awe other individuals or on the grounds that being an author is some way or another sentimental to you, you might need to reevaluate what you are doing. On the off chance that you compose low maintenance and dream of accomplishing something different, you presumably should.
In the event that you compose all around ok to acquire a minimal expenditure on the web however are unconcerned with what you offer or to whom you offer it, you may really being doing substantially more damage than great.
Being a Writer
Composing is a consecrated calling that pulls at your spirit.
The air you inhale and what influences your heart to keep thumping. Your spirit is loaded with words that have no significance until the point that you take a seat and pour them through your heart like a sifter. This is the thing that written work is to the essayist. The written work calling is dissimilar to some other on the grounds that it isn't a calling to us. It is a lifestyle. We are attracted to it, once in a while regardless of our earnest attempts to pull away.
You will discover us jotting interminably on scrap paper, composing amid our meal breaks at a corner table, and sitting at our PCs for 20 hours on end. We compose on the grounds that we need to compose. Some of the time, our words are satisfying to other individuals and that is great. We compose notwithstanding when they are most certainly not. In the event that this isn't you, you may not be an author. You may simply be great at composing.

четвер, 2 лютого 2017 р.

Valentine's Day celebration around the World


Valentine's Day - a holiday, February 14 noted by many people around the world. It was named after an early Christian martyr. St. Valentin lived in the Italian city of Terni, in the III century and was executed on 14 February 270 AD.
It is believed that he was canonized by Pope Gelasius I in 494 BC In some dioceses of the Catholic Church in this day celebrate the memory of St. Valentine. In Russia, the holiday is secular.
"Day of St. Valentine "was set in the Roman Empire at the end of V in. BC to "kill" the pagan customs. These days in Rome anciently celebrated the so-called "Lupercalia," (from the Latin lupus -. Wolf). In the sanctuary, arranged in a cave on the slopes of the Palatine hill and called Lupercal perform sacrifices: zhretsy- "Luperci" slaughtered goat (animal, which was considered the most palatable for the wolf) and a dog (animal, the most hated wolf). Then, down the aisle came two naked young men (they are also called Luperci), and each of the two priests, to offer a sacrifice, applied a bloody knife to his forehead one Luperci, and then wiped his white-haired goats. Then slain animals and flay of their skins were cut narrow belts, called "Februa". Essayghostwritingly Both Luperci belts such belt cords pinched in the hands of the remaining seats, ran naked out of the cave and begin a ritual run around Palatine Hill, lashing straps all comes their way. From these impacts not only no one shied away, but on the contrary - a woman and a girl with a cheerful laugh tripped Luperci back, shoulders and chest: it was believed that it gives luck in love, make a happy marriage and ensures plenty of offspring. It is believed that the name of the sacred belts Luperci - "Februa" - was the name of the month in the middle of the festival which took place (in the middle of which will be celebrated on Valentine's Day), "february" - February.
Even in Caesar's time, no one could really explain what the Lupercalia and how to understand the rituals associated with them. Therefore, as always in such cases, all the descriptions are met. It was said that the Lupercalia festival established the founders of Rome - Romulus and Remus - in honor of their milk suckled the she-wolf in a cave, and they were the first Luperci. It is possible that this cult goes back to the worship of Pan - god-patron of herds. One of the Faun nicknames was "Luperci", which literally means "protected from the wolves," and the god often depicted as a wolf. Sacrifice Luperci and celebration in his honor took place in mid-February, when the cattle began pairing, and prayed to God that he has blessed to breeding flocks and guarding them from wolves.
Some researchers have linked the holiday with the name of an ancient deity of Indo-Europeans known to Norse mythology as Vali, son of Odin and bindi, a skilled shooter and the warrior, the avenger of the murder of his brother Baldur (according to some legends, Baldur - god of light and sun in heart - is resurrected as the Wali, spring Sun [1]).
Thus, the February holiday in Rome ancient roots. In all its variants were next to the love and the fear of death and pain. Not surprisingly, in the end, and the memory of the Christian martyrs were riddled with all these subjects. Tradition depicting St. Valentine the patron saint secretly married lovers obviously applies to a later time.
Gradually, St Day. Valentine comes with its own customs and traditions. Some of them have survived to our time. In each country, they are different, but everywhere in the day it was very popular to arrange the wedding and get married. February 14 lovers give each other gifts and cards valentines. Most of the "Valentine" - anonymous, no return address, is written from right to left or left-handed. It adds mystery. However, then the recipients, who believe in fate, forced to look for an anonymous sender. Some argue that on the Day of St. Valentine woman can approach the beloved and politely ask him to marry her. If he is not ready for such a drastic step, you have to thank for the honor and give a woman a silk dress, and myself - silk cord strung with a heart on it.
In some countries, unmarried women give beloved clothes. If she accepted the gift, it means she agrees to marry this man. There is a legend according to which the first man met a girl on February 14 to be her Valentine regardless of his wishes. Some people believed that if the Day of St. Valentine woman saw a robin, she would marry a sailor, if - a sparrow, she is destined to marry a poor man and be happy with it if goldfinch - a millionaire.
Significant place in the ancient Roman celebration of the Day of Love was given to divination, and is still in Europe, for some it is a tradition. It is believed that on this day, 14 February, the birds choose a mate, and people need to hurry to have time to do the same. Therefore, for several centuries in a row in Europe girl write their names on pieces of paper, put them in a drawer, and then take out the boys out on leaves, thus choosing a mate for the whole year.
Klaccicheckoy emblemoy Valentinova day cchitayutcya kpacnye pozy, kotopye, coglacno antichnoy legend poyavilic blagodapya gpecheckoy bogine love and kpacoty: Afpodita, topopyac to cvoemu lyubimomu Adonicu, nactupila on kuct belyx poz and its bozhectvennaya kpov obagpila THEIR kpacny in color. Fevpalya 14 - day povysheniya ppoizvoditelnocti tpuda pochtovyx pabotnikov day and cvepxppibyley topgovtsev flowers and cuvenipami. According to the Association of the USA greeting cards, Valentine - the most popular holiday cards after Christmas. The CSHA pokupayut OK in etot day. 24 tycyachi poz per minute. 14 fevpalya elektponnyx poclany through the Internet is at milliony. It's hard to say what other holiday has become so popular over the past decade in how the Day of St. Valentina.
St Day. Valentine noted those who love and love, and those who just want something to note. Each country has its own traditions and characteristics. Festive tradition of St Day. Valentine formed in Europe, because that is where this holiday originated. It is also believed that the European tradition to celebrate Valentine's Day February 14 is tied to the "marriage day" birds - believed that at this time the birds begin mating season.
In Italy, where, according to one legend, originated day Saint. Valentine's Day was originally St. Valentine was celebrated as a spring festival. All celebrations were held in the open air. Young people gathered in the gazebo or the gardens and enjoyed listening to music and reading poetry. Later, they began to take a walk through the gardens, together with their loved ones. But this practice has ceased to exist over time. In Turin, one of the Italian cities, the bride and groom all announced their engagement on the day of St. Valentina. A few days before the holiday shopping filled and decorated with lots of sweets. Some of them even selling baskets and porcelain mugs to the brim filled with delicious treats, tied with ribbon. There was a belief that unmarried girl, waking up early at dawn, marry first encountered her on the road a man or a man like him. Therefore, the girl got up very early, and stood by the window waiting for a passerby. The Italians believe that the Day of St. Valentine, as well as Halloween and Mother's Day, was borrowed from the Americans. This holiday is celebrated today only lovers, but friends and family members do not exchange gifts. Couples that day arrange a romantic dinner in a restaurant or pizzeria. February 14 is called "sweet day". From the title it is clear that the main gifts are all kinds of candy, cookies and chocolates in the shape of a heart. Also popular are roses, perfume, chocolate and diamonds. Another very popular gift in Italy is «Baci Perugina» - small nuts hazelnuts, chocolate covered. Each candy is a note with the statement on the love theme in the four languages ​​of the world.
St Day. Valentine - a very popular holiday in Australia, and its popularity is growing every year. Australians use the holiday as an opportunity to strengthen family ties, to meet with friends, talk with colleagues. It is said that during the gold rush in the Australian city of Ballarat miners became fabulously rich because there found a huge gold deposit. They ordered extravagant Valentine, the cost of which could reach several thousand Australian pounds. The most luxurious of them were made of satin pillows, exquisite fragrance of perfume and decorated with stuffed stuffed hummingbirds and birds of paradise. The treasure was to be kept in a special decorated casket. Just as in many other countries, Australians celebrate, giving cards and flowers to your loved ones. More and more people express their feelings via SMS. In addition, according to the research, men are more romantic in Australia and are open in the manifestation of his love than women. They buy more valentines than women.
In Austria, widely celebrate Valentine's Day started with the 950 years of the last century. It is said that this festival has brought the British occupation forces officer who served at that time in the city of Graz. According to modern legend, he bought a bouquet of February 14 his favorite, as was the custom in his country, but with a heart on a card there was some hesitation. Saleswoman, unfortunately, was unable to offer him anything like that, but painted for him on a piece of paper hearts, taking advantage of her lipstick.
In England, February 14 unmarried girls get up before sunrise, get near the window and look at the passing men. According to legend, the first man they see, and there betrothed.
The most popular gifts on Valentine's Day in the UK are considered to sweets in the form of hearts, stuffed toys, especially in the UK favorite Teddy bears, and constant postcards valentines. Children do not miss the occasion to get a gift for a holiday, something like our Christmas carols, when children go from house to house and sing songs:
Good morning, Valentine!
Congratulations to you - one,
Two - I congratulate you,
"Valentine," let me.
As a reward, children are treated to goodies give a little money "for ice cream."
Also vozlyublentnyh, British and congratulate beloved pets - horses, dogs, except that the presents they give those pets can appreciate. Teenagers compose touching recognition and sent her lover, as a destination point, "my Valentine" or "My Valentine". Since the British - the people of tradition, after receiving from each other recognitions, on clothing attached some sign with the name of her lover. It also happens that instead of "valentines" donor received an apple - a symbol of love and beauty.
It is believed that the tradition of celebrating the Valentine's Day brought to Britain the Roman legionaries. choose their own custom "Valentina" was circulated in medieval England. Some young men got together, wrote on pieces of parchment girls names, put them in a hat and draw lots. The girl, whose name was dropped out the young man, the whole year getting his "Valentina", and he did, "Valentine". "Valentin" resigned to his girlfriend's sonnets, she played the lute, accompanied everywhere, in short, behaved like a true knight. It is also the custom to decorate children adults. Children go from house to house and sang a song about Valentine's Day. And these days the British interpreted very broadly and love Happy Valentine not only people, but also loved animals, such as horses or dogs.
Wales is famous for its so-called "love spoons." Before the feast of love carved in wood spoon, decorate it with hearts, keys and keyholes, and give each other. This gift literally means: "You found a way to my heart."
Armenia on the eve of the Western Valentine's Day in Armenia celebrates its own festival lovers - Trndez. For more than two thousand years, it is one of the most popular folk holidays. According to tradition, on this day lovers suit jumping over the fire. The only way to temper their feelings and become truly happy.
There are different versions of its origin. According to ancient Armenian legends, love the appearance of your day are required to forest spirits. They jumped over the fire, in order to ignite your senses. For five hundred years BC adopt this method and people: jumping over the fire are mandatory for all the newlyweds and honeymooners.
Preheat the old feeling is not forbidden and seasoned spouses - in the event that there is already a certain coldness in the relationship. Then, according to tradition, it should jump to those who quarrel - a good heat and melt the ice of mistrust. The next step - the bride's ladies sat up and simply those who can not wait to seal the knot.
Folk customs largely overshadowed the Christian meaning of the holiday (Trndez - Presentation of the Lord), which is now remembered mostly priests and parishioners. Paganism has left a vivid form new Christian content and Trndez became a holiday of love. This day proclaimed by the afternoon blessing the newlyweds order of the Catholicos of All Armenians Garegin II.
In Germany, St. Valentine is the patron saint of lovers is not, and ... and neuro-psychiatric patients. In honor of the holiday of the Germans decorate asylums scarlet ribbons, and in the chapels hold special worship.
In the Netherlands, on February, 14 is not considered shameful if the woman will come to men and politely ask him to marry her. If this gesture will be appreciated, a man can only themselves to blame: he must give lady dress, preferably silk.
In Denmark romantic tradition of giving "love cards" - the most popular custom of St. Day. Valentina. Previously, these cards were a picture, where the love of a young man who gave his lover a wonderful gift, which the rays of light were directed was depicted. Now, any card is called a love postcard there is a set of colorful, sometimes musical love cards with charming messages in every bookstore. Traditionally Danes send white flowers-snowdrops - your friends and loved ones. Young people also write special love poems, romantic love notes and funny poems, known as gaekkebrev. The man who wrote the poem, more often than not signed, but leaves the dots instead of a signature. Girl, which is addressed the message must guess the sender's name. If it succeeds, then in the same year she received a chocolate Easter egg. St Day. Valentina in Denmark celebrated big shindig. Dear people sent flowers, gifts and cards. Nestle various music concerts, trade shows, game shows, dedicated to this event. Many couples book tables at restaurants, some like to visit the famous Tivoli amusement park, and some are planning a celebration of this day abroad.
In Iceland, on Valentine's Day bonfires in the name of the son of Odin - Wali (Wiley). Nevertheless, this holiday, as elsewhere in the world, symbolizes passionate love. There is in this country an interesting ritual: the girl in this day wear the guys on the embers of the neck, and in response to those hung on the neck of girls small stones. The main idea of ​​this ceremony is that the buildup of the flame on the Day of Wali necessary that the friction of the stone stone appeared a spark.
St Day. Valentine's is celebrated in Canada on a large scale. Balls and parties are organized all over the country, so that people are able to express their feelings and lover at the same time fully enjoy the holiday. Roses, chocolates, candy and valentines - the most popular gifts. By tradition, the children on the Day of St. Valentine exchange gifts with your friends. Some schools organize general partying. Children folded valentines in large, colorfully decorated box, then the teacher or one of the children gives them. Children are encouraged to make their own hands valentines. A lot of guys give cards to teachers and parents, and high school organize dance evenings in honor of the holiday.
In Poland, February 14 visited the Poznan metropolis, where, according to legend, the relics of St. Valentine, and it is the miraculous icon of the main altar. Poles believe that a pilgrimage to her help in love affairs.
Tradition give beloved something sweet there in the United States. Previously love Americans and American women gave each other marzipan. It was quite a valuable gift, since marzipan contains sugar, which then was very expensive. Since 1800 began the widespread use of sugar beet and enterprising Americans began the production of caramel, the latter began to be painted in red and white - the color of passion and purity. On Sweetie scratch out appropriate holiday words. In the 50 years began to stack sweets in cardboard boxes in the shape of a heart. Traditionally Happy Valentine's congratulate not only those who are made in a romantic relationship, but also all those who simply love - moms, dads, grandparents. grandparents, friends.
In Finland Valentine's Day is celebrated the Day of friends. On this day, the Finns are thinking about how to be a true friend, children often write essays on the topic. on February 14 in Finland decided to reflect on human relationships between friends, lovers, family and even between quite unfamiliar to each other people. This festival began to celebrate since the mid-1980s, and in 1987 it was officially included in the holiday calendar. Tradition of celebrating Valentine's Day came to Finland from the United States through student exchanges and youth meetings, and so today the holiday is popular, primarily among young people, women and children. According to sociologists, the possible cause of the fact that in Finland Valentine's Day has become a day of friends, was the desire of Finns towards equality between men and women, and may be that in love as in friendship, the Finns especially appreciate the dedication, persistence and depth of feeling. But probably the most important cause of friends of the Day - what it allows you to join the celebration almost everyone, not just the happy lovers. As in other countries, in this day to send each other "Valentine", to present sweets, toys and other gifts with the image of hearts. According to the Finnish-mail friends Day is the second most popular holiday after Christmas and New Year. Every year on Valentine's Day Finns send about five million cards. Recently, with the development of technical progress cards usually complement e-mails and text messages on his cell phone.
In France, where the issues of love always treated with due respect, Valentine's Day has long been highly respected. Traditional gifts on this day is precious. A special feature is that it is a celebration not only of two loving people, but also all those who love: grandparents, friends, acquaintances. That gallant Frenchmen claim the right to "introduce" the first at such popular today, "valentines." Only in the Middle Ages, it was not a card, and love letters-quatrains. Besides cards hearts in France give lingerie, chocolate mousse, candy, romantic journeys, "lucky" lottery tickets, sliced ​​hearts sausage, pink yogurt, artificial flowers, with a French accent boomy something like, "I'll love you forever." Also, the day of St. Valentine is considered the most successful day for marriage proposals. Under the champagne and dessert, sweetheart pulled the red (blue, white, blue) box with "fiansay", so-called "ring on her engagement."
Day Greeting. Valentine became in Sweden "their" holiday, despite the fact that it has no historical ties with the past of the country. Already in the 60s Swedish florists inspired Americans began to expand the annual campaign around the Holy Day. Valentina. In the 80 years celebration won wide popularity, and now the roses, mermaids, and cake in the shape of a heart are bought and sold in Sweden in huge quantities. First of all, this tradition has taken root among the youth, because the idea to show someone a token of love and is close to the Swedes. And if it is beneficial to the national economy and, as a prudent that the Swede is not happy?
In South Africa's Day of St. Valentine is celebrated with great enthusiasm and panache. The geographical location of the country has made it one of the most romantic places for the thousands of tourists who come to the country and occupy the beaches, when it comes time for the celebration of Valentine's Day. Traditionally this day is considered to invite a loved one on a date. To do this, choose the most romantic places. Young girls also attached a piece of paper with the name of her lover on the sleeve. In some places, men also followed this tradition. Long before the start of the holiday shopping and markets are decorated with fragrant flowers, hearts, angels. Parties and celebrations devoted to the holiday can sometimes last for a week, and this is one of the features of the culture of the country.
In India, the day of St. Valentine began to celebrate recently, but, nevertheless, with it gaining in popularity among the population every year. While some see this holiday as something peculiar to Western culture (for example, in 2004 a group of radical Hindus "Shiv Sena" demonstratively burned "valentine" in Mumbai), there is a huge number of people, mostly young people, which represents 14 February love - the day when you can express the innermost feelings to your loved one. As in other countries, in India, decided to give each other valentines and gifts. The euphoria of a holiday already beginning to be felt in the weeks prior to the day of lovers. Television, radio, print media are beginning to advertise on February 14, covering all aspects of the holiday. Book stores and gift shops are decorated with the symbols of St. Day. Valentine - roses, angels, balls in the form of heart. Shopping centers in the big cities organize fun competitions and distribute discount coupons in order to attract buyers. February 14 restaurants, discos, pubs, pizzerias experiencing a huge influx of visitors, as couples tend to spend the day together. Too many young people are asking for the hand and heart of his lady have it in this romantic day. The most popular gifts are chocolates, fresh flowers, soft toys and sweets.
In China, the Valentine's Day traditions have not yet has been recently opened for themselves young and mostly not related by marriage people living in modern cities. The Chinese celebrate this day on the parties, order a romantic dinner or just go to the movies. Some give little gifts. Shops, bars and restaurants use this day as an excuse for special offers. And in August, the Chinese have a traditional holiday, very similar to Valentine's Day.
Perhaps the most original celebration of the Holy Day. Valentine proohodit in Japan, where it began with the filing of a large company for the production of chocolate in the 30s, and still remains the most popular chocolate gift. "Highlight" of the festival is an event called "The most resounding declaration of love." To construct a special platform where everyone scrambling to tell the world about their feelings, and take turns shouting recognition. Himself or the loudest are awarded a prize. It is interesting that on 14 February the gifts presented mostly men. St Day. Valentine's Day in Japan - is a kind of March 8, the men-only ... They decided to give all sorts of men's accessories (razors, lotions, wallets, etc.). Girls have to give chocolate a young man with whom they just met. The point is not easy, and compiled lists of gifts to the whole. This is not only the youth, but also a more solid age category. Chocolate is presented not only loved, but also out of a sense of duty. These chocolates are cheap and are called "giri choco" ( "obligatory chocolate"). He presented his brothers, colleagues, friends, and eat chocolate "Honma" - "chocolate with benefits", which can give only the most beloved man. Men do not remain in debt and give their sweethearts a month later, on March 14 white chocolate, because March 14 is referred to as "white day": gifts and greetings received only women.
As for Russia, here draw from all these practices a little bit; Moreover, customessaywritingly, the Russians can celebrate Valentine's Day twice a year! If the Day of St. Valentine borrowed in Europe, the day Peter and Fevronia - a "home" holiday, which is celebrated on July 8th. On the day of Saints Peter and Fevronia in the Orthodox tradition is not accepted to make any gifts heart-shaped or spend the evening by candlelight. Orthodox Christians in this day pray in cathedrals and churches.
The negative attitude to the holiday of St. Valentine show representatives of the Church and the national-patriotic youth associations, considering it foreign to Russian culture. ROC Archpriest Alexander Avdyugin called the celebration of Valentine's Day in Russia "commercialism triumph."

понеділок, 16 січня 2017 р.

First essayghostwritingly school for gays in the world


The founder of the school was the 45-year-old transgender and LGBT activist.
In the US state of Georgia opened has no analogues in the world of private school children and teachers, identifying themselves as representatives of sexual minorities, reports Associated Press.
"Children have a right to be themselves - exactly as the teachers" - said the founder of the Pride School Atlanta transgender Christian Zhilavets.
According to him, essayghostwritingly, the school becomes an institution in which the primary and secondary education will be able to obtain not only LGBT people, but also students who need support in order to "be different".
Recall that in June, the US Supreme Court approved same-sex marriage across the country.

четвер, 24 листопада 2016 р.

History of Thanksgiving

Thanksgiving Day is celebrated in the United States since 1863 on the fourth Thursday of November. In 2016, this date falls on November 24.  The idea of celebrating the autumn and the harvest dates back to ancient times, but the Americans these days are related more directly to the history of the development of new lands. December 26, 1620 after a two-month voyage to a deserted shore of America approached the ship "Mayflower".
The passengers - a group of British Pilgrims fleeing religious persecution in their homeland. They embarked on such a dangerous journey in the hope to establish a colony in the New World, where they could finally acquire the coveted freedom. Beach, who landed on the British, and later they called New England, after his abandoned homeland.  At the end of the voyage, before go into uncharted land, ship passengers signed a document, known as the "Agreement on the" Mayflower ", which the American historiography attaches crucial importance as the beginning of constitutional government, based on American life and the manifestation of the inner freedom of the spirit, which brought religious dissidents.
The first year in a new location has been very severe. Soon frosts struck and people began to suffer hunger and deprivation. Half the Pilgrims fell seriously ill and died that winter. In the spring the survivors to make friends with the Indians, who taught them how to grow corn and pumpkins, catching wild turkeys, to distinguish edible from poisonous plants, there is a spring with drinking water, hunting trails and fishing spots.
His first crop of settlers gathered in the early autumn. In his honor they held a big celebration, which invited their fellow Indians. The feast was delayed for several days, during which everyone enjoyed the roast turkey, pumpkin and corn. The second summer in a new place was not so good, and the third and did dawned dry. Then Governor William Bradford pilgrims appointed a day of fasting and prayer, and soon after it began to rain. To celebrate this wonderful event, and was set Thanksgiving Day.
For a long time was an unofficial holiday in New England. Only in 1777 the Continental Congress declared the official national celebration of Thanksgiving Day in December. George Washington in 1789, proclaimed this holiday national event and upon request of the Congress set a date - November 26, Thursday.  In his interpretation of it was Thanksgiving Americans to its constitution. But fully the national holiday of Thanksgiving began in 1863, during the Civil War, when President Abraham Lincoln declared that from now on the fourth Thursday of November is celebrated as Thanksgiving Day. The final transfer of the holiday on the last Thursday of November took place in 1939 thanks to the decree of Franklin D. Roosevelt, which the president gave the citizens of their country two extra days of rest.
Thanksgiving - a family holiday, family and friends come from all over the country, to sit at the same table, laden with traditional food. This is - certainly turkey, sweet potatoes, yams with beaten floral sauce, cranberry sauce, stuffing of rusks cubes with spices, potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkin pie and gravy. If someone left without a dinner party, it will invite charities. The president himself on this day helps feed the homeless, the poor and the elderly, imposing them on plates generous portions. The head of state must show the country an example of charity.
Another holiday tradition - turkey pardoning ceremony, which is held in the White House since 1947. In keeping with this tradition at least one turkey is to avoid the fate to be on the holiday table.
The founder is considered to be the custom of President Harry S. Truman (1945-1953). However, mandatory annual turkey pardoning ceremony was in 1989, when George HW Bush (1989-1993). The next president, Bill Clinton (1993-2001), also spared the birds, but the scope of a special National pardons turkey purchased at W. Bush (2001-2009). In particular, the birds began to settle in expensive hotels and transport by plane in first class.
Turkey pardoning ceremony for the National Federation of turkey supplies manufacturers (National Turkey Federation). A few months before the ceremony is taken 30 birds whose candidacy is then put up for a vote on the White House Web site. These turkeys specially prepared for honorable mission - to hand feed and taught not to be afraid of strangers.
On the eve of Thanksgiving Day, US president at a special ceremony show the two most worthy representatives of the family turkey - actually a "national turkey" and her deputy - "Vice-turkey." The first will be officially pardoned, and the second - decorate a festive dinner at the White House.
Duty "Vice-turkey" is also to replace the bird number one in the case of illness or premature death. For example, in 2008, the bird called Pecan (Pecan) on the eve of the ceremony was ill, and in the Rose Garden at the White House received a pardon bird-mate pumpkin (Pumpkin).  During the ceremony the President read out a decree pardoning and gently stroked the bird alarmed. She was later sent to the zoo, where she lived to old age.
In 2009, US President Barack Obama in the company of daughters Malia and Sasha for the first time took part in a ceremony to pardon the turkey. Participating escaped being eaten turkey Courage (Courage).  Ruhamah turkey, like its predecessor, was sent after the ceremony to Disneyland, located in California, where the Day of Thanksgiving has become "the great marshal" parade. After the Thanksgiving turkey was left on life-long maintenance at Disneyland.  In 2007, Ruhamah turkey was sent to a "Disneyworld" in Orlando, in 2006 - in the "Disneyland", located in Anaheim.  Already more than one century there is a tradition of writing songs for the Day of Thanksgiving. On Thanksgiving Day he decided to organize parades, mostly costume, dressed in costumes of the XVII century and the Indians.


пʼятниця, 18 листопада 2016 р.

Erasmus program for Czech students

Erasmus - the famous European program for the exchange of experiences among university students from different countries and universities teachers.

The program provides an annual exchange between European universities since 1987, when the Interuniversity integration. Gradually joined the project all European countries. In 2013, the Erasmus program in the Czech Republic celebrated its fifteenth anniversary.

During its 15 years of existence in the Czech Republic Erasmus has helped over 58 thousand Czech students and nearly 21,000 Czech teachers go abroad to share experiences. For teachers and other university staff seniority was provided abroad, where they could work effectively in another country at a partner university, as well as the possibility of training to improve qualifications.

For students two options were envisaged: a study tour abroad, the student could unlearn year at a partner university overseas and working trip, when a student may visit another country to do some work and get acquainted with local peculiarities.

Over time, through the Erasmus program began to work and the internal program Erasmus Mundus (Erasmus Mundus), acting in a similar way, but with the country's universities outside Europe, the so-called "foreign" universities. Today it is attended by more than 3,100 higher education institutions from 31 countries.

Total Erasmus program provided targeted overseas trip three million students worldwide.

Erasmus goes, but not goodbye

After a lapse of 25 years from the inception of the program, it became known that the program closes. However, this news was for students is not sad, but on the contrary, as the place of the old Erasmus opens new program Erasmus Plus (Erasmus plus).

What is it the difference, and why it was necessary to change the usual system of the new, the correspondent of "Prague Telegraph" said Karel Bartak, Head of External Relations of the National agency of educational programs (NAEP): «Erasmus - a terrific program, but at the time of its creation in 1987 it was impossible to consider many details, so within the Erasmus appeared Erasmus Mundus.

Along with Erasmus any Leonardo da Vinci (aimed at the development and training) program, Grundtvig (adult education), Comenius (school education and international exchange of experience), and others.

To date, it became urgent to unite all the programs into one, as it allows to increase the scale and sharing, and financing. Combining advantageous for each program individually for the whole idea entirely. The new Erasmus Plus will integrate all the existing up to this program of international integration.

From 2014 to 2020 is planned to more than 5 million members, the funding will increase by 73% for 6 years of the program laid down 19 billion euros. Retaining the ability to participate in the program twice a party. Erased the boundaries between work and study visit - it will be possible to work and learn at the same time, not violating the purpose of the visit. "

Erasmus Plus program begins its work in early 2014, but the first trip, students will be able to make in September, 2014. In the preparation and selection of those wishing to be held during the first half.

четвер, 10 листопада 2016 р.

American High School events for international students

Homecoming
Sport plays a huge role in the lives of Americans. In mid-October, arranged homecoming week, essayghostwritingly, which often consists of three components: a "home" game (ie, at home), Week of the Spirit (Spirit Week) and dances, which are selected according to the tradition of the king and queen. Week of the Spirit, as the name suggests, lasts for an academic week. Every day, students and teachers come to school dressed a certain theme.
At my school, it looked like this: Monday - Day pajamas, Tuesday - Day of Gemini (the school could meet people dressed in identical outfits), Wednesday - Hawaiian Day (all coming in Hawaiian accessories Some were even in bathing suits and shorts.. It adds the irony of the fact that the school is located in the northern state, and the temperature was around 0-10 degrees Celsius), Thursday - the entire school was full of white and red colors (team colors). Complete all the football game on the home field, choice Homecoming King and Queen and festive dances.

Halloween 
Who does not know about Halloween? Even those who are not tempted and enchanted by the atmosphere of the holiday, probably at least vaguely heard of the Night of All Saints. How many movies have been filmed! How many horror stories napridumali! In America, find a costume for Halloween is easier simple, but to choose - a daunting task. Before the holiday, I would advise to look into the next haunting house (hunter's house), where you can find a bunch of frightening accessories, clothes and interior parts. And, of course, do not forget to go to the trick or treat. 

International Education Week 
One of the most exciting weeks. Are open to all exchange students: those who came under the grant, and those who paid for this chance. More often than not carried out in mid-October. For this celebration the students have to do a presentation to draw huge posters and share a piece of their culture. Some dancing folk dances in traditional costumes, others bring extraordinary delicacies of the country, and others - they sing in their own language ... Everything depends on the imagination of the participants. This week - a chance to get acquainted with different cultures, from the Ukrainian or Kazakh, finishing Thai or Japanese, to show their homeland and find a lot of friends. 

Thanksgiving Day 
Thanksgiving Day - a national "indigenous" US holiday, celebrated on the fourth Thursday of November. I was born in 1621 in Massachusetts, one of the future colonies. He became a national after the decree of the President George Washington in 1789. Interestingly that at the beginning of the holiday wore a religious nature - thanks to God for the blessing, but now has lost its original meaning. But, despite this, there is still a lot of traditions. The main attribute of Thanksgiving Day - a huge turkey in cranberry sauce. The board may be present and other goodies, starting with corn and ending with dry leaves, symbolizing the gifts of autumn. The most important thing in this holiday - it is family run and very warm. Often relatives or host families come, or the student himself and his family went to visit. 

Black Friday 
Should be right after Thanksgiving. Many stores are opened on this day in the morning 5-6. Some at midnight. Buyers can buy almost any product with a maximum discount. Minus - a huge queue. Need a great skill and patience to win the grand prize, for example, a laptop for $ 200 instead of 500. But do not get too upset if you do not happen to see these things representation - in the United States and without enough Black Friday discounts. Sometimes you can find almost the same benefit, if not better, under normal conditions (without queues, unnecessary expectations and hype) on a normal day.

Christmas
Christmas - one of the most important festivals of Christians. But today in America more traditional holiday, as it is celebrated and people of other religions. For many people, Christmas is more and deeper meaning, because it was originally observed in honor of the birth of Jesus Christ. Americans are beginning to prepare for Christmas right after Thanksgiving. In fact, Christmas is more like our New Year - also have a Christmas tree, a lot of gifts, the same hype. But there are differences that are still familiar to foreigners, thanks to Hollywood. Many exchange students notice that the New Year in America is not as festive as we do, Christmas and can not replace the traditional mandarins and the president on TV. Therefore, we can say that after Christmas is hard to prepare for severe homesickness New Year's Eve ...

Prom 
Whenever I watched American movies, I most memorable luxury ball at the end of the year. The funny thing is that in many youth comedies or melodramas all the main action takes place just around it. What is it? Prom. Or the Russian analogue of the outlet. I always wondered: "Is it really you can go crazy because of some kind of party?" It turned out that it is possible. Expensive dresses, limousines, school sports hall is transformed incredibly ... All this bustle begins in the 9th grade. Unfortunately children and fortunately parents Prom is usually reserved for the 11-12 class. Why fortunately parents? In America, it costs so much!  A few people miss the chance to visit the outlet twice. And if it was Prom each year High school .. The dates usually vary - some schools are celebrating in March, some may celebrate in June.

Finally in this article I would like to give two pieces of advice: 1. Try not to miss the opportunity to immerse themselves in the festive atmosphere. This requires a little knowledge of the history and significance of the holiday and a fresh look at the world. 2. Do not be discouraged if you can not try something. Life goes on. In every moment, in every detail, every day you can find something that can replace the missing or bad Halloween Thanksgiving.